Day 1 :
Associate Professor in the Discipline of Dentistry at University of KwaZulu-Natal.
Professor Shenuka Singh is an Associate Professor in the Discipline of Dentistry at UKZN. She has a doctoral degree (PhD) in Dental Public Health. She is currently supervising 16 postgraduate students. She chairs the Humanities and Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee and is a member of the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee at UKZN. In addition, she is Research Ethics Chair for the Council for Science and Industry Research in South Africa. Prof Singh is also appointed as a member of the National Health Research Ethics Council in South Africa (2016-2019). This is a ministerial appointment.
Introduction: Student attitudes and behavior towards their own oral health status could reflect their understanding of the importance of oral health promotive activities.
Study Objectives: This exploratory study with a qualitative approach was designed to gain a deeper understanding of the extent to which the undergraduate curriculum could act as an enabler for student oral health self-care practices.
Methods: Data collection comprised document analysis (targeted curriculum review) and in-depth face-to-face interviews with undergraduate dental therapy and oral health students, and academic staff at a university in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Ten students volunteered to participate in the study while five academic staff were purposively selected. A separate interview schedule was developed for students and staff, respectively. The emergent themes from document analysis were compared to the analyzed data from the interviews.
Results: The curriculum was underpinned by a strong foundation in prevention, and there was consensus among respondents that the curriculum met the needs for undergraduate training in preventive dentistry. The following themes emerged from data analysis: curriculum support for self-care practices; depth and scope of clinical training; role of clinical supervisors and challenges in clinical training. Respondents agreed that the curriculum could influence students’ attitudes towards self-care practices such as tooth brushing and flossing but that academic responsibilities and clinical contact time placed constraints on these practices.
Conclusion: The undergraduate curriculum does provide support for enabling student knowledge acquisition and positive attitudes, but more effort is required to enable oral health behavioral modifications among students.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2116 27th St. NE Renton, WA, USA
Treatment of acute pneumonia (АР) in recent decades focused solely on antibiotic therapy,does not include pathogenetic, specific methods of assistance and repeats the principles of treatment of other inflammatory diseases. Moreover, according to existing therapeutic and preventive recommendations, it is possible to assume that the АP is a specific form of inflammation. Existing approaches to the treatment of АP are in stark contrast with the following well known facts.
- АP is not contagious specific disease.
- Approval, the priority role of specific pathogens in the etiology of AP have no absolute evidence,for the vast majority of these patients were cured and cure without clarifying the etiology of the disease.Cause a significant increase in septic complications AP, contrary to expectations, on the background of total pneumococcal vaccination remains without a reasoned explanation.
- The etiology of АP is represented by many non-specific bacteria.These microorganisms are found as a rule among the symbionts of healthy people.
Reducing the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs,the emergence and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and a gradual increase in the frequency of purulent complications attach importance and urgency to the solution of this problem. The first step in this decision is a revision of ideas about the nature and mechanisms of АP.This work has been done and tested in a clinical setting in the years 1976-1984 in Novokuznetsk State Institute for postgraduate doctors(USSR,Russia).The basis of the new doctrine АP was based on the following scientific medical axioms, already having previous scientific justification.
- The body's response to any stimulus, including the initiation of inflammation,is highly individual and unique.
- The basis for the inflammatory transformation of the body tissue is a vascular reaction with a specific stage sequence.
- Small and big circles of blood circulation not only have a direct relationship,but an inverse relationship.
- Among the nonspecific forms of inflammation, AP is the only process occurring in the system of lesser circulation.
- The same medical procedure can have different effects on inflammation in the small or big circles of blood circulation.
Following private studies were additionally performed:1.Experimental model of AP(4 series of experiments, 44 animals) obtaining a model of pleural complications(certificate for invention No 1631574, A1,1 November 1990,USSR.).2.X-ray examination 56 lung anatomical preparations with different forms of the AP,taken from the dead patients.3.Record comparative rheopulmonography before and after performing medical procedures(36 patients).4.Analysis of the observation and treatment of 994 children with AP and its various destructive and pleural complications.
The revised treatment guidelines were applied in 101 patients in the initial period of aggressive forms of АP.The received results allow to speak about possibility of the guaranteed prevention of suppurative and destructive complications of the disease.
A more detailed presentation and justification of the new doctrine AP, the results of these studies and clinical trials can be found in the published book: Igor Klepikov-"Acute pneumonia: a new look at the old problem", Lambert Academic Publishing, 2017, ISBN(978-3-330-35250-6).